Wireless, bioresorbable, passive sensor for continuous pH monitoring and early identification of stomach leakage

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In a caller study published successful Scientific Advances, researchers created a bioresorbable, cordless, passive sensor that monitors pH locally and detects tummy leakage early on.

 sasirin pamai/Shutterstock.comStudy: Bioresorbable, wireless, passive sensors for continuous pH measurements and early discovery of gastric leakage. Image Credit: sasirin pamai/Shutterstock.com


Biomarkers surrounding soul organs tin springiness postoperative information, specified arsenic intra-abdominal pH changes pursuing tummy surgery. Traditional radiological procedures are neither biocompatible nor due for impermanent implants.

An implanted, wireless pH sensor mightiness beryllium nan astir businesslike method for accelerated detection. Recent improvements successful response-generating hydrogels show committedness for point-of-care aesculapian diagnostics.

Incorporating pH-responsive hydrogels into wireless electrical devices whitethorn beryllium an effective engineering strategy.

About nan study

In nan coming study, researchers developed a bioresorbable instrumentality for early discovery of anastomotic leaks pursuing gastric surgery, utilizing passive analog-type wireless communications to guarantee accelerated guidance times and early objective outcomes.

A pH-sensitive hydrogel functioned arsenic nan transducer, connecting to a mechanically designed inductor-capacitor circuit, enabling wireless reading. The hydrogel is functionalized pinch pH-responsive-type tertiary amines, resulting successful specific, mechanically durable, biodegradable, and pH-responsive hydrogels.

This worldly provided supporting matrices for inductor-capacitor (LC) resonance circuits, quickly converting dimensional alterations into resonant wave shifts successful magnitudes measured precisely by inductive connections to outer reference devices.

Mechanics models thief pass decisions connected nan optimum hydrogel and circuit constituent geometries, peculiarly that of nan sensor inductor. Systematic investigations successful animals and instrumentality setups in vitro confirm nan device's continuous pH monitoring ability.

The researchers established nan technology's biocompatibility and bioresorbability by histological examinations, complete humor count (CBC) testing, and serum chemistry.

The fabrication method included combining poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA), poly[2- (diisopropylamine)ethyl methacrylate (PDPAEMA), and 2,2- dimethoxy- 2- phenyl acetophenone (DMPA), curing nan hydrogel pinch UV radiation, and laser cutting Zn foils to shape an inductor pinch spiral coils.

Molten bioresorbable wax was infused into nan channels, resulting successful a homogeneous, electrically insulating layer. The location of nan inductor and capacitor was wished by demolding nan wax-coated Zn coil and casting nan pH-responsive hydrogel prepolymer.

The researchers defined nan capacitor's apical and bottommost electrodes by laser-cutting Zn foil discs. The reference strategy consists of a VNA and a single-turn coil. Setting nan VNA to reflective mode allows for measurements of nan existent and virtual portions of nan S-matrix constituent S11.

The pH of each buffer solutions and biofluids is calibrated and verified pinch an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor pH meter.

The study included big antheral Lewis rats aged 14-16 weeks acclimatized for up to 7 days earlier surgery. During nan implantation procedure, nan rats were fixed wide anesthesia via inhaled isoflurane vapor.

The squad conducted functional tests connected euthanized pigs and respective rat models. They obtained humor samples four, six, and 12 weeks aft implantation and preserved nan explanted organs successful neutral-buffered formalin for histological research.


The level monitors gastric fluid leakage during nan important consequence shape aft laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). It uses wireless readout coils to measurement nan sensor circuit's resonance frequency, which is affected by nan surrounding biologic fluid acidity.

Any leaking tummy contents (pH 1.0 to 3.0) infiltrate nan hydrogel, causing edema and abrupt resonant wave (FS) shift, necessitating surgical intervention. The instrumentality degrades spontaneously pursuing nan treatment time, reducing nan dangers and expenses associated pinch early extraction operations.

The delicate portion of nan monitoring instrumentality is nan pH-reactive hydrogel enclosed successful an inductor pinch a serpentine spiral shape.

The hydrogel degrades successful biologic fluids by hydrolyzing nan constituent ester groups aliases ether cleavage during oxidation, rendering it water-soluble, harmless, and removable from nan quality body. The inductor creation seeks to trim mechanical compliance while maintaining debased guidance and a precocious value (Q) factor.

Performance assessments centered connected nan wireless readout showed that nan sensor could execute accuracy crossed a wide scope of astir 3.0 cm done nan aerial and 2.0 cm done fat and thin tissues. 

Non-destructive aesculapian imaging technologies, specified arsenic ultrasonography, tin assistance successful determining nan precise placement of deployed sensors during regular bedside examinations. Additional tests show that nan sensor tin respond to acerb injected up to 6.0 cm distant wrong an hour.  

The researchers utilized mini and ample animal models to trial stableness and due functioning during a seven-day therapeutically applicable timeframe.

The study shows that implantation of a pH sensor successful rat models does not harm organ tissues aliases nutrient inflammatory responses specified arsenic immune compartment aggregation.

The study presents a wireless instrumentality for postoperative monitoring of gastric leakage and biosorption pursuing surgery. The sensor, which causes h2o and hydrogen ion diffusion into a biodegradable hydrogel, enables volumetric description and inductance changes.

These changes tin beryllium wirelessly sensed arsenic shifts successful nan resonance wave and recorded via near-field coupling to an outer reader. Mechanical models thief guideline creation decisions, and imaginable enhancements see expanding wireless sensing scope and merging tethered and deployable hydrogel instrumentality designs.

Journal reference:

  • Shuo Li et al. (2024) Bioresorbable, wireless, passive sensors for continuous pH measurements and early discovery of gastric leakage. Sci. Adv. 2024, 10, eadj0268, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.adj0268. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.adj0268