Ultra-processed foods raise chronic kidney disease risk, study shows

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In a caller study published successful nan journal Frontiers successful Nutrition, researchers measure nan relation betwixt ultra-processed nutrient (UPF) depletion and nan consequence of chronic kidney illness (CKD).

Study: Ultra-processed nutrient depletion and chronic kidney illness risk: a systematic reappraisal and dose-response meta-analysis. Image Credit: 

What causes CKD?

CKD affects betwixt 8-16% of nan world population, pinch its prevalence wrong nan United States estimated to beryllium astir 15% among adults. Epidemiological studies person reported associations betwixt nan depletion of definite foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns and nan consequence of CKD; however, little is known astir nan effect of nutrient processing connected nan incidence of CKD.

Previous reports propose important associations betwixt precocious UPF depletion and elevated risks of respective non-communicable diseases. Nevertheless, fewer epidemiological studies person examined nan narration betwixt UPF intake and CKD risks and yielded accordant results.

About nan study

In nan coming study, researchers systematically reviewed nan associations betwixt nan depletion of UPFs and CKD risks. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Scopus databases were searched for applicable studies, and references from selected articles were explored to place further studies.

Observational studies involving adults 18 years of property and older were selected if they followed nan NOVA classification system, evaluated associations betwixt UPF intake and CKD risks, and reported comparative risks (RRs), likelihood ratios (ORs), and hazard ratios (HRs). Titles/abstracts were screened, and afloat texts were reviewed.

Data connected study region/design, CKD cases, publication year, sample size, follow-up duration, appraisal methods, and consequence estimates were extracted. Incident CKD was defined arsenic an albumin-to-creatinine ratio exceeding 30 mg/g, estimated glomerular filtration complaint of 60 ml/min/1.73m2 aliases less, aliases objective CKD diagnosis. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was utilized to measure study quality.

The NutriGrade instrumentality was utilized to measure nan credibility of nan evidence. HRs were assumed to beryllium astir adjacent to RRs, whereas ORs were converted into RRs.

A meta-analysis was performed by summarizing RRs for nan highest and lowest UPF intake categories successful narration to CKD risk. The I-squared statistic and Cochran’s Q trial were utilized to measurement heterogeneity.

RRs were pooled utilizing nan DerSimonnian and Laird random-effects exemplary if nan heterogeneity was high; otherwise, fixed-effect models were used. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed to estimate RRs for each 10% increment successful power from UPF intake. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were besides performed.

Study findings

Database searches identified 905 records, 426 of which were retained pursuing deduplication and exclusions. Title/abstract screening excluded 394 further studies.

Overall, 8 studies, comprising complete 500,000 individuals, were selected aft full-text reviews. Two studies were cross-sectional, and six were cohort studies.

All studies included successful nan reappraisal were published aft 2021 and conducted successful nan U.S., Spain, Korea, China, Netherlands, and nan United Kingdom. Follow-up durations ranged betwixt 3.6 and 24 years.

Dietary appraisal methods included food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs), interviews, aliases 24-hour dietary recall. Seven studies were of precocious quality, whereas 1 was of mean quality.

The highest UPF intake class was associated pinch an 18% accrued consequence of CKD compared to nan lowest category. Moderate heterogeneity was observed successful nan reviewed studies, frankincense necessitating nan usage of a fixed-effects model.

A linear relation was observed betwixt UPF intake and CKD risk. Each 10% increment successful power from UPF depletion was associated pinch a 7% greater CKD risk. NutriGrade appraisal indicated mean credibility of nan evidence.

Significant associations were evident crossed each subgroups. A subgroup study involving cohort studies reproduced nan affirmative relation betwixt UPF intake and CKD risk, pinch little heterogeneity.

The affirmative relation was accordant successful studies pinch sample sizes exceeding 5,000, pinch nary grounds of heterogeneity. Likewise, sensitivity study confirmed nan robustness of nan study findings.


The study findings bespeak a importantly higher consequence of CKD associated pinch accrued UPF consumption. The differences successful study design, UPF intake appraisal methods, and sample sizes mightiness explicate nan mean heterogeneity.

FFQs were administered successful astir studies, which could person led to misclassification bias, frankincense starring to over- aliases under-estimation of UPF intake. Furthermore, FFQs were not explicitly designed to seizure nan degree/purpose of nutrient processing.

Importantly, nan study findings person constricted generalizability, arsenic six of nan 8 reviewed studies were conducted successful Western populations.

Journal reference:

  • He, X., Zhang, X., Si, C., et al. (2024). Ultra-processed nutrient depletion and chronic kidney illness risk: a systematic reappraisal and dose-response meta-analysis. Frontiers successful Nutrition. doi:10.3389/fnut.2024.1359229