How minerals influence women's fertility and menstrual health

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In a caller reappraisal published successful nan journal Nutrients, researchers successful Austria talk nan domiciled of definite minerals successful nan female reproductive system.

 Marko Aliaksandr / Shutterstock.comStudy: Minerals and nan Menstrual Cycle: Impacts connected Ovulation and Endometrial Health. Image Credit: Marko Aliaksandr /


The usability of minerals for female reproductive health, particularly passim menstruation, is simply a analyzable area of investigation that emphasizes nan nexus betwixt fare and female fertility. Despite nan accent connected micronutrients for preventing reproductive diseases, location remains a deficiency of systematic grounds connected nan effect of minerals during nan menstrual play connected female fertilization pathways.

Although researchers person extensively investigated minerals related to antheral fertility, their engagement successful women's reproductive wellness has received little attention, pinch galore studies overlooking nan menstrual phase.

Overview of female reproductive regulation

Hormones are important successful quality reproduction, arsenic they power various processes specified arsenic menstruation, ovulation, implantation, and gestation. Hormones besides facilitate follicle maturation and ovulation, successful summation to supporting nan endometrium to supply perfect circumstances for a fertilized egg.

The ovaries are basal for female reproductive health, arsenic they nutrient oocytes for fertilization and synthesize hormones specified arsenic estrogen and progesterone. During nan follicular phase, accrued gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH) accumulation encourages nan merchandise of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Comparatively, GnRH secretion suppresses arsenic progesterone levels emergence during nan luteal phase.

Oxidative stress, which occurs erstwhile nan body's accumulation of free radicals exceeds its expertise to detoxify their detrimental effects, tin harm cellular structures and perchance effect fertility. Iron excess, selenium deficiency, zinc shortage, insufficient magnesium intake, and copper imbalances indirectly impact female fertility.

Impact of mineral intake connected female fertility


Zinc is basal for hormone production, endometrial function, and fertility, arsenic it regulates LH, FSH, and steroid accumulation while protecting nan oocyte from oxidative stress-related reactive oxygen type (ROS) damage.

Zinc digit proteins assistance estrogen receptor function; therefore, maintaining due zinc levels is captious for fertility. Zinc deficiency tin origin reproductive wellness problems specified arsenic abnormal LH and FSH synthesis, irregular ovarian growth, menstrual rhythm disruptions, and pre-eclampsia.


Selenium is required to nutrient selenoproteins, which person thyroxine to its biologically progressive form, triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid metabolism is captious for maintaining hormonal equilibrium successful nan female fertility system, arsenic hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism tin interrupt menstrual cycles and impact conception. Thus, maintaining optimum selenium levels is captious for accordant and effective ovulation.


Iodine is basal for thyroid usability and hormone production, arsenic this mineral interacts pinch reproductive hormones for illustration estrogen and progesterone. Iodine deficiency tin origin hypothyroidism, infertility, and reproductive abnormalities.

Adequate iodine depletion is captious for each menstrual stages. In fact, animal studies person indicated that Lugol's iodine therapy tin summation fertility successful cows pinch unexplained infertility.


Iron, a cardinal constituent of hemoglobin, is required for reddish humor compartment oxygen carrier and physiological activities. Iron deficiency tin origin anemia, reduced oocyte quality, and reduced ovulation frequency.

Maintaining capable robust levels is captious for women trying to conceive, arsenic debased levels tin lead to infertility. Comparatively, robust overload tin trim ovum counts successful assisted reproductive technologies.


Calcium is an basal constituent of nan female reproductive system, arsenic it affects bony health, hormone output, and sperm fusion. The merchandise of calcium causes nan pituitary gland to merchandise LH and FSH, thereby encouraging nan ovaries to nutrient estrogen and progesterone.

Calcium indirectly impacts hormonal power by altering ovulation and ovary function. Moreover, balanced calcium levels are important for optimal cellular section and embryo implantation.


Magnesium is captious to hormonal equilibrium and female fertility. It is progressive successful enzymes specified arsenic aromatase, which converts androgens into estrogens. Magnesium is progressive successful astir 600 enzymatic activities, including deoxyribonucleic acerb (DNA) repair and glutathione metabolism.

Magnesium tin besides amended insulin sensitivity and minimize comorbidities. The antioxidative capabilities of this mineral indirectly amended fertility by protecting nan assemblage against oxidative damage, preserving oocyte quality, modifying ovulation, and promoting endometrial health.


Copper is important for protecting nan assemblage against oxidative accent by functioning arsenic a cofactor for nan superoxide dismutase enzyme. Copper affects antioxidant systems, awesome transduction, and cistron expression; however, excess copper tin person pro-oxidative effects and impair endothelial function.


Manganese, a valuable trace mineral, acts arsenic a free radical-scavenging antioxidant to protect compartment structures from oxidative accent and perchance amended female reproductive wellness. Oxidative accent impairs oocyte usability and quality, thereby disrupting nan hormonal regularisation of female fertility.


Minerals person important roles successful female fertility, peculiarly hormonal control, ovulation, oxidative stress, and endometrial health. Certain minerals, specified arsenic selenium, calcium, and zinc, are basal for nan follicular shape and ovulation. Conversely, robust excess, zinc shortages, inadequate magnesium consumption, and copper imbalances tin indirectly impact female fertility.

Journal reference:

  • Kapper, C., Oppeit, P., Ganhor, C., et al. (2024). Minerals and nan Menstrual Cycle: Impacts connected Ovulation and Endometrial Health. Nutrients 16(1008). doi:10.3390/nu16071008