Fatty food before surgery may impair memory in old, young adults

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Eating fatty nutrient successful nan days starring up to room whitethorn punctual a heightened inflammatory consequence successful nan encephalon that interferes for weeks pinch memory-related cognitive usability successful older adults -- and, caller investigation successful animals suggests, moreover successful young adults.

The study, building upon erstwhile investigation from nan aforesaid laboratory astatine The Ohio State University, besides showed that taking a DHA omega-3 fatty acerb supplement for a period earlier nan unhealthy eating and surgical process prevented nan effects connected representation linked to some nan high-fat fare and nan room successful aged and young big rats.

Three days connected a high-fat fare unsocial was detrimental to a circumstantial type of fear-related representation successful aged rats for arsenic agelong arsenic 2 weeks later -- nan aforesaid type of impairment seen successful younger rats that ate fatty nutrient and had a surgical procedure. The squad has traced nan encephalon inflammation down these effects to a macromolecule that activates nan immune response.

"These information propose that these aggregate insults person a compounding effect," said elder writer Ruth Barrientos, an interrogator successful Ohio State's Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research and subordinate professor of psychiatry and behavioral wellness and neuroscience successful nan College of Medicine.

"We've shown that an unhealthy diet, moreover successful nan short term, particularly erstwhile it's consumed truthful adjacent to a surgery, which successful and of itself will origin an inflammatory response, tin person damaging results," Barrientos said. "The high-fat fare unsocial mightiness summation inflammation successful nan encephalon conscionable a small bit, but past you person room that does nan aforesaid thing, and erstwhile put together successful a short magnitude of clip you get a synergistic consequence that tin group things successful mobility toward a longer-term representation issue."

The study was published precocious successful nan diary Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.

Barrientos' laboratory studies really mundane life events mightiness trigger inflammation successful nan aging encephalon arsenic nan tense strategy responds to signals from nan immune strategy reacting to a threat. Decades of investigation has suggested that pinch aging comes semipermanent "priming" of nan brain's inflammatory floor plan and a nonaccomplishment of brain-cell reserve to bounce back.

Researchers fed young big and aged rats a fare precocious successful saturated fat for 3 days earlier a process resembling exploratory abdominal room -- an arena already known to origin astir a week of cognitive issues successful an older brain. Control rats ate regular nutrient and were anesthetized, but had nary surgery. (Barrientos' laboratory has wished anesthesia unsocial does not origin representation problems successful rats.)

In this study, arsenic successful erstwhile investigation connected aged rats treated pinch morphine aft surgery, nan squad showed that an immune strategy receptor called TLR4 was nan culprit down nan encephalon inflammation and related representation problems generated by some room and nan high-fat diet, said first writer Stephanie Muscat, adjunct objective professor of neuroscience astatine Ohio State.

"Blocking nan TLR4 signaling pathway anterior to nan fare and room wholly prevented that neuroimmune consequence and representation impairments, which confirmed this circumstantial mechanism," Muscat said. "And arsenic we had recovered earlier successful different exemplary of an unhealthy diet, we showed that DHA supplementation did mitigate those inflammatory effects and forestall representation deficits aft surgery."

There were immoderate astonishing representation findings successful nan caller work. Different behavioral tasks are utilized to trial 2 types of memory: contextual representation based successful nan hippocampus and cued-fear representation based successful nan amygdala. In contextual representation tests, rats pinch normal representation frost erstwhile they re-enter a room successful which they had an unpleasant experience. Cued-fear representation is evident erstwhile rats frost successful a caller situation erstwhile they perceive a sound connected to that erstwhile bad experience.

For aged rats successful this study, arsenic expected, nan operation of a high-fat fare and room led to problems pinch some contextual and cued-fear representation that persisted for astatine slightest 2 weeks -- a longer-lasting effect than nan researchers had seen before.

The high-fat fare unsocial besides impaired nan aging rats' cued-fear memory. And successful young big rats, nan operation of nan high-fat fare and room led to only cued-fear representation deficits, but nary problems pinch representation governed by nan hippocampus.

"What this is telling america successful aged animals, on pinch nan truth we're seeing this aforesaid impairment successful young animals aft nan high-fat fare and surgery, is that cued-fear representation is uniquely susceptible to nan effects of diet. And we don't cognize why," Barrientos said. "One of nan things we're hoping to understand successful nan early is nan vulnerability of nan amygdala to these unhealthy fare challenges."

With expanding grounds suggesting that fatty and highly processed foods tin trigger inflammation-related representation problems successful brains of each ages, nan accordant findings that DHA -- 1 of 2 omega-3 fatty acids successful food and different seafood and disposable successful supplement shape -- has a protective effect are compelling, Barrientos said.

"DHA was really effective astatine preventing these changes," she said. "And that's astonishing -- it really suggests that this could beryllium a imaginable pretreatment, particularly if group cognize they're going to person room and their fare is unhealthy."

This activity was supported by grants from nan National Institute connected Aging and nan National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

Co-authors included Michael Butler, Menaz Bettes, James DeMarsh, Emmanuel Scaria and Nicholas Deems, each of Ohio State.