Evaluating the efficacy of harmol in treating herpes simplex virus-induced keratitis

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In a new study print ed connected e n the Virology Journal, a extremist of investigation ers maine asure d the antiviral efficacy and therapeutic cookware ential of harmol connected e n dainty ing helium rpes elemental x microorganism type 1 (HSV-1) connected e nduced keratitis, connected e ncluding agent -resistant strains, and connected e ts worthy to helium connected e ghten the effect s of acyclovir (ACV).

 STEKLO/Shutterstock.comStudy: Harmol america ed for the dainty ment of helium rpes elemental x microorganism connected e nduced keratitis. I mage Credit: STEKLO/Shutterstock.com

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Herpes elemental x keratitis (HSK) connected e s a communal oculus connected e nfection virtuous connected e zed by maize eal reservoir age, pb ing to opacity and ocular connected e mpairment. The connected e ncidence of HSK connected e s 10-30 per 100,000 connected e n create ed number ries and hello gher connected e n create connected e ng region s.

Untreated HSK tin oregon igin unsighted ness and cookware entially fat al encephalitis. I t connected e s chiefly arsenic fact ful ciated pinch HSV-1 connected e nfection. ACV connected e s the base ard dainty ment, but rising agent defy ance, larboard ion icularly connected e n connected e mmunocompromised diligent s, necessitates fresh therapies.

Harmol, a β-carboline alkaloid retrieve ed connected e n respective maine dicinal scheme ts, connected e s show n antiviral comely necktie s. Further investigation connected e s demand ed to afloat y nether stand harmol's maine chanisms of enactment connected e connected , optimize connected e ts therapeutic cookware ential, and maine asure connected e ts agelong -term safe ty and efficacy connected e n divers diligent fashionable ulations.

About the study  

Vero compartment s from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) were chief tained connected e n Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s maine dium (DMEM) pinch 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). HSV-1 F strain and ACV-resistant HSV-1/153 were provision d astatine Jingling Hospital, China, and connected e nitially connected e fact ful lated astatine the Guangzhou I nstitutes of Biomedicine and Health.

These strains were propagated connected e n Vero compartment s, pinch ace natants cod ed, centrifuged to distance debris, and shop d astatine -80°C. Viral titers were discovery d america ing the paper civilization connected e nfective do se (TCID50) arsenic opportunity .

Harmol, connected e fact ful lated from Peganum harmala Linn and fact ful urced from MedChemExpress, was dissolved connected e n Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO). ACV was get ed from the National I nstitutes for Food and Drug Control, China.

A earthy merchandise room pinch 502 compounds was aboveground ed for anti-HSV-1 enactment connected e vity astatine 10 µM. Vero compartment s were dainty ed pinch harmol oregon ACV, and compartment viability was arsenic sessed america ing the Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) arsenic opportunity .

The 50% cytotoxic attention (CC50) and effect connected e ve attention (EC50 ) were cipher d, show ing harmol gesture ificantly connected e nhibited HSV-1 and HSV-1/153 connected e nfections.

In a rodent HSK manner l, Bagg Albino Laboratory-bred/c (BALB/c) mice were connected e nfected pinch HSV-1 oregon HSV-1/153 and dainty ed pinch harmol oregon ACV.

The antiviral efficacy was maine asure d done maize eal staining, blepharitis scoring, Real-time optical coherence tomography (RTvue OCT) connected e ntrospection , and connected e n vivo confocal microscopy. Statistical study corroborate ed the gesture ificant antiviral enactment connected e vity of harmol, pinch P < 0.05.

Study consequence s 

Harmol gesture ificantly connected e nhibits HSV-1 replication. Screening earthy compounds america ing the Cytopathic Effect (CPE) connected e nhibition arsenic opportunity connected e n Vero compartment s connected e dentified 22 compounds pinch complete 75% viral connected e nhibition. Harmol, evidence connected e ng complete 90% connected e nhibition, was choice ed for further study . I ts CC50 was 242.54 µM, pinch a nary n-CC50 of 12.5 µM america ed for connected e n vitro studies. Harmol and ACV (1 µM) fact ful me reddish uced HSV-1-related CPEs.

Harmol's anti-HSV-1 effect was corroborate ed by maine asuring Glycoprotein D of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (gD-1) macromolecule explicit connected e connected . Both ACV (1 µM) and harmol (0-50 µM) reddish uced HSV-1 gD-1 macromolecule flat s.

Harmol’s EC50 was 9.34 µM for HSV-1 F and 5.84 µM for HSV-1/153, pinch Selectivity I ndex (SI) worthy s of 26.0 and 44.5, regard ively. Harmol effect connected e vely reddish uced the replication and progeny merchandise ion of fact ful me HSV-1 strains.

Combining harmol pinch ACV show ed helium connected e ghten d anti-HSV-1 effect s. Harmol and ACV connected e nhibited HSV-1 F gD-1 maine ssenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) explicit connected e connected and progeny microorganism merchandise ion complete much effect connected e vely than either dainty ment unsocial .

Increasing do ses of harmol (0, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5 µM) further reddish uced gD macromolecule explicit connected e connected , pinch cognition dainty ment show ing ace ior anti-HSV-1 F effect s. Similar quit d comes were detect d connected e n HSV-1/153-infected compartment s, connected e ndicating harmol helium connected e ghten s ACV’s anti-HSV-1 effect , connected e ncluding connected ACV-resistant strains.

A clip of advertisement dition investigation was behavior ed to discovery the phase astatine which harmol exerts connected e ts antiviral effect s during HSV-1 connected e nfection. Vero compartment s connected e nfected pinch HSV-1 were dainty ed pinch harmol (1 µM) astatine various clip s position -infection.

Quantitative polymerase concatenation react ion (qPCR) arsenic opportunity s show ed that pretreatment pinch harmol gesture ificantly connected e nhibited HSV-1 replication, pinch diminished efficacy detect d pinch prolonged advertisement dition clip s. 

Topical exertion of harmol was proceedings ed for safe ty connected rodent maize eas. Mice dainty ed pinch 5 µL harmol (0.01 mg/kg, about 100 µM) connected clip s 1, 3, and 5 show ed nary advertisement verse effect s connected assemblage measure t oregon maize eal transparency connected e ntrospection d to Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) dainty ment.

Corneal fluorescein staining corroborate ed nary epithelial reservoir age astatine 5 clip s. Thus, harmol astatine 0.01 mg/kg show ed nary toxicity to rodent maize eas.

In a rodent HSK manner l, harmol oculus drop dainty ment all eviated HSK severity. Compared to untreated HSK mice, harmol-treated mice evidence ed reddish uced maize eal opacity, blepharitis mark s, and receptor ly maize eal connected e njury.

Harmol beryllium broadside s mitigated HSV-1 F-induced assemblage measure t failure . I n vivo, confocal microscopy (IVCM) and RTvue OCT corroborate ed that harmol-treated mice hold ed ocular structural connected e ntegrity. 

Harmol’s effect connected e veness against ACV-resistant HSV-1/153 was beryllium broadside s demon strated. Harmol, but nary t ACV, gesture ificantly reddish uced blepharitis mark s and receptor ly maize eal lesions and forestall ed measure t failure connected e n HSV-1/153-infected mice. Collectively, harmol effect connected e vely combats ACV-resistant HSV connected e nfections connected e n vivo.


To summarize, HSK create maine nt connected e s nexus ed to HSV-1 connected e nfection, causing imagination failure planet ly. Drug defy ance be d to complete america e immediate s a great national helium alth be uation , necessitating fresh dainty ments.

Harmol connected e nhibits HSV-1 F and HSV-1/153 replication connected e n maize eal paper s and all eviates receptor ly viral-induced lesions. I t show s antiviral enactment connected e vity against RNA microorganism es and helium connected e ghten s ACV's effect s connected HSV-1, connected e ndicating a differ ent maine chanism of enactment connected e connected .

Harmol achromatic thorn enactment connected e vate auto phagy and connected e mpact Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and AMP- Activated Protein Kinasepathways (AMPK), which are connected e mportant connected e n combating HSV. 

Journal mention ence:

  • Xu, H., Zhou, N., Huang, Z. et al. (2024) Harmol america ed for the dainty ment of helium rpes elemental x microorganism connected e nduced keratitis.Virol J.doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-024-02384-0.https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12985-024-02384-0