Enzyme discovery paves the way for developing universal donor blood

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Researchers astatine DTU and Lund University person discovered enzymes that region hindrances that stood successful nan measurement of processing cosmopolitan philanthropist blood.

The quest to create cosmopolitan philanthropist humor has taken a decisive measurement forward. Researchers astatine DTU and Lund University person discovered enzymes that, erstwhile mixed pinch reddish humor cells, are capable to region circumstantial sugars that dress up nan A and B antigens successful nan quality ABO humor groups. The results person been published successful nan technological diary Nature Microbiology: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-024-01663-4

"For nan first time, nan caller enzyme cocktails not only region nan well-described A and B antigens, but besides extended variants antecedently not recognized arsenic problematic for transfusion safety. We are adjacent to being capable to nutrient cosmopolitan humor from group B donors, while location is still activity to beryllium done to person nan much analyzable group A blood. Our attraction is now to analyse successful item if location are further obstacles and really we tin amended our enzymes to scope nan eventual extremity of cosmopolitan humor production," says Professor Maher Abou Hachem, who is nan study leader astatine DTU and 1 of nan elder scientists down nan discovery.

He states that nan find is nan consequence of combining nan expertise of DTU researchers successful enzymes from nan quality gut microbiota and Lund University researchers successful carbohydrate-based humor groups and transfusion medicine.

High request for philanthropist blood

Human reddish humor cells transportation circumstantial analyzable sugars structures (antigens) that specify nan 4 ABO humor groups A, B, AB and O. These antigens power compatibility betwixt donors and recipients for safe humor transfusion and organ transplantation. Donor humor is screened for illness markers and nan main humor groups. It tin past beryllium stored refrigerated for up to 42 days.

The request for philanthropist humor is precocious owed to nan aged making up a larger proportionality of nan organization and much patients undergoing blood-intensive aesculapian procedures. Successfully converting A aliases B humor types into ABO cosmopolitan philanthropist humor tin markedly trim nan logistics and costs presently associated pinch storing 4 different humor types. In addition, nan improvement of cosmopolitan philanthropist humor will lead to an accrued proviso of philanthropist humor by reducing nan discarded of humor approaching its expiry date.

The logic why it is basal to region nan A and B antigens to create cosmopolitan philanthropist humor is because they tin trigger life-threatening immune reactions erstwhile transfused into non-matched recipients.

The conception of utilizing enzymes to make cosmopolitan philanthropist humor was introduced much than 40 years ago. Since then, higher ratio enzymes to region nan A and B antigens were discovered, but researchers are still not capable to explicate aliases abolish each immune reactions related to nan blood, and truthful these enzymes are still not utilized successful objective practice.

Enzymes from nan gut

The investigation groups from DTU and Lund University person gone caller ways to find enzymes that tin region some nan A and B humor antigens and nan sugars that artifact them. The investigation teams discovered caller mixtures of enzymes from nan quality gut bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila that feeds by breaking down nan mucus, which covers nan aboveground of nan gut. It turns retired that these enzymes are exceptionally efficient, arsenic nan analyzable sugars astatine nan aboveground of nan intestinal mucosa stock chemic resemblance pinch those recovered astatine nan aboveground of humor cells.

What is typical astir nan mucosa is that bacteria, which are capable to unrecorded connected this material, often person tailor-made enzymes to break down mucosal sweetener structures, which see humor group ABO antigens. This presumption turned retired to beryllium correct."

Professor Maher Abou Hachem, study leader astatine DTU

The researchers successful this study tested 24 enzymes, which they utilized to process hundreds of humor samples.

"Universal humor will create a much businesslike utilization of philanthropist blood, and besides debar giving ABO-mismatched transfusions by mistake, which tin different lead to perchance fatal consequences successful nan recipient. When we tin create ABO-universal philanthropist blood, we will simplify nan logistics of transporting and administering safe humor products, while astatine nan aforesaid clip minimizing humor waste" says Professor Martin L. Olsson, nan leader of nan study astatine Lund University.

The researchers from DTU and Lund University person applied for a patent connected nan caller enzymes and nan method for enzyme curen and expect to make further advancement connected this successful their caller associated task complete nan adjacent 3 and a half years. If successful, nan conception needs to beryllium tested successful controlled diligent tests earlier this tin beryllium considered for commercialized accumulation and objective use.

The first investigation task is funded by nan Independent Research Fund Denmark (Technology and Production Sciences, FTP), nan Swedish Research Council, ALF grants from nan Swedish authorities and region councils arsenic good arsenic nan Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and Research Fund Denmark, Natural Sciences, FNU), while nan caller continued task is funded by nan Novo Nordisk Foundation, Interdisciplinary Synergy Programme.


Journal reference:

Jensen, M., et al. (2024). Akkermansia muciniphila exoglycosidases target extended humor group antigens to make ABO-universal blood. Nature Microbiology. doi.org/10.1038/s41564-024-01663-4.