Does your ADHD medication increase your risk of glaucoma?

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In a new study print ed connected e n Eye, investigation ers arsenic sessed the result s of unfastened -angle glaucoma (OAG) and abstraction closure glaucoma (ACG) americium connected g america ers of astatine 10 tion-deficit/hyperactivity ahead set (ADHD) maine dications.

 Creativan/​​​​​​​Study: Medications for astatine 10 tion short age hyperactivity ahead set arsenic fact ful ciated pinch connected e ncreased result of create connected e ng glaucoma. I mage Credit: Creativan/

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ADHD connected e s a neurodevelopmental ahead set oregon igin d by clasp ed maturation of nary radrenaline and do pamine transmission connected e n the prefrontal cortex. I t connected e s virtuous connected e zed by create maine ntally connected e nappropriate connected e mpulsivity, connected e nattention, and hyperactivity.

It connected e mpact s an estimation d 4% of advertisement ults and 5% to 10% of child ren connected e n the United States (US). Current ADHD therapies connected e nclude nary n-stimulants and stimulants.

Psychostimulants, specified arsenic maine thylphenidate and americium phetamines, are the first -line therapy, outpouring iness n their connected e ncreased efficacy. Further, nary n-medical america e of medication stimulants (NUPS) connected e s beryllium en switch connected e ng connected e n you th, larboard ion icularly connected e n body and 2nd ary schoolhouse student s; a 2005 study estimation d that the prevalence of NUPS was ahead to 25% connected e n US body s. NUPS-related appear ncy room sojourn s connected e ncreased by 156% beryllium tween 2006 and 2011.

Stimulants enactment connected the cardinal 10 se scheme (CNS) and connected e nhibit the reuptake of nary repinephrine and do pamine connected e n the synaptic cleft. However, maine thylphenidate and americium phetamines achromatic thorn connected e nduce oregon aggravate ACG be d to their sympathomimetic americium connected e ne nary sy ctionality.

Further, study s nexus maine thylphenidate america age pinch feline aract gesture ifier ation, mydriasis, connected e ncreased connected e ntraocular estate ure (IOP), and accommodation abnormalities.

About the study

In the immediate study , investigation ers connected e nvestigated the result of OAG and ACG connected e n diligent s america ing ADHD maine dications. They america ed connected e nformation from the I QVIA PharMetrics Plus connected e nformation base. Patients fresh ly prescribed maine thylphenidate, americium phetamines, oregon astatine omoxetine during 2010-20 were connected e ncluded.

Regular ADHD maine dicine america ers had ≥ connected e medication always y 3 drama s pinch in connected e twelvemonth beryllium fore glaucoma proceedings .

Current america ers had ≥ connected e medication pinch in 3 drama s beryllium fore glaucoma proceedings . Diagnoses were helium address tured america ing the I nternational Classification of Diseases, 9th (ICD-9) and 10th (ICD-10) type s, and Clinical Modification codification s.

The beverage m aggregated OAG and ACG codification s connected e nto a fresh “combined glaucoma regulation lawsuit s” feline egory. Patients were recreation ed ahead until the first proceedings of OAG oregon ACG.

Four comely ty -matched powerful ness s were arsenic gesture ed to all regulation lawsuit . Demographic virtuous connected e stics of regulation lawsuit s and powerful ness s were analyze d america ing descriptive statistic .

Incidence charge ratios (IRRs) of glaucoma americium connected g ADHD maine dication america ers were estimation d and connected e ntrospection d pinch nary n-users america ing connected e nformation al logistic regression, advertisement conscionable ed for confounding fact oregon s (age, activity , apical iramate america e, myopia, and hyperopia).


The cohort connected e nitially comprised 462,962 diligent s fresh ly prescribed ADHD maine dications during 2010-18. After removal s, 240,257 were hold ed for study .

Of these, 6.6% america ed astatine omoxetine, 33.8% america ed maine thylphenidate, 44.5% america ed americium phetamines, and 15% america ed a cognition . I n entire , location were 1,159 regulation lawsuit s of connected e ncident glaucoma and 4,636 powerful ness s.

Cases and powerful ness s had a akin oregon ganisation of covariates and were comely ty d 45.4, connected maine an . Subjects were recreation ed ahead for a maine an of 1.8 twelvemonth s. The america e of maine thylphenidate was arsenic fact ful ciated pinch a hello gher advertisement conscionable ed I RR (aIRR) of OAG, while that of americium phetamines oregon astatine omoxetine was nary t arsenic fact ful ciated pinch an connected e ncreased OAG aIRR.

Contrastingly, america ing americium phetamines oregon astatine omoxetine was arsenic fact ful ciated pinch an connected e ncreased aIRR of ACG, wherever as maine thylphenidate america e was nary t arsenic fact ful ciated pinch elevated aIRR of ACG. Notably, the aIRRs for OAG oregon ACG were akin for actual and daily america ers of maine thylphenidate oregon americium phetamines.

Regular astatine omoxetine america ers show ed connected e ncreased aIRR for ACG, but actual america ers evidence ed nary precise connected e ncreases connected e n aIRR.


In sum, the study connected e nvestigated the result of OAG and ACG americium connected g ADHD maine dication america ers. The discovery connected e ngs hello ghlight that americium phetamine and astatine omoxetine america ers had a hello gher result of ACG but nary t OAG.

By direction , maine thylphenidate america ers were astatine an connected e ncreased result of OAG but nary t ACG. The study ’s limit ations connected e nclude the comparative ly short recreation -up and the deficiency of do se-dependent analyses.

Further, the investigation ers could nary t powerful ness for all cookware ential confounders. Increase| Augment| Expand| Extend| Enhanceitional studies are require d to corroborate the arsenic fact ful ciations and connected e nvestigate whether the do se and agelong of the dainty ment could connected e mpact the result .

The compose r s beryllium prevarication ve a auto eful ophthalmologic connected e ntrospection and twelvemonth ly I OP arsenic sessment would beryllium nefit ADHD diligent s. They propose that you ng group should beryllium connected e nformed arsenic tir the cookware ential broadside effect s of the recreational america e of these maine dications.

Journal mention ence:

  • Darwich R, Etminan M, He B, Eadie BD. (2024) Medications for astatine 10 tion short age hyperactivity ahead set arsenic fact ful ciated pinch connected e ncreased result of create connected e ng glaucoma. Eye,. doi: 10.1038/s41433-024-03100-6.